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ГЕНДЕРНАЯ ТЕОРИЯ И ИСТОРИЧЕСКОЕ ЗНАНИЕ

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Адам и Ева. Альманах гендерной истории.

Под ред. Л.П. Репиной. Вып. 2, Москва, 2001.

Summaries

G.A. Brandt
Human on the margins: woman in the history of European philosophy
The article reveals theoretical principles that led Western philosophers (from Ancient times to the twentieth century) in their search for "woman's nature". It demonstrates that the question of "woman's nature" was viewed in the Western philosophical tradition separately from the general question of "human nature". Moreover, it was viewed in a different theoretical paradigm. Starting from the statement of Mikhail Bakhtin that human cognition exists in two extremes: thing (object) and personality (subject), the article demonstrates that woman was treated in the Western thought mostly as the first (thing-object), while human being as such was treated mostly as the second (personality-subject). The question of woman's nature has been also isolated from the mainstream of philosophical thought. It has been mostly discussed in the perspective of "specificity" of "human nature" (peculiarities of woman's body, of woman's psyche, etc.) and has been mostly treated as "defective". In other words, woman was understood as a creature different from man (=human being).
The other aspect reflects the idea, that such approach to the notion of woman's nature derives from the fact that for all European philosophers (all were males!) woman was always "other" and "object". This way of treating woman's nature in the history of European culture was so powerful, that woman herself started to view the question by man's eyes. Only in the last decades of the twentieth century woman's necessity to look at herself by her own woman eyes started to take shape. This attempt was undertaken by feminist philosophy.
N.L. Pushkareva
Why marriage of Marxism and Feminism appeared not to be happy?
N.L. Pushkareva puts forward the problem of the relations of Marxism and Feminism. The author analyses main political, economic and social statements of Marxist theory. She detects the great influence of Marxism on Feminism. At the same time she supposes, that the Marxist theory presented the system of patriarchal views. Marxism defined the women' oppression as the case of the social discrimination as a whole. Such approach led Lenin up to idea about the absence of the special interests of the women. However Feminism took some Marxist methods and ideas, which promoted the development of the Feminist theory.
S.A. Korotkova
Two fates at the beginning of the way
The biographies of two extraordinary women, having lived in American Colonies in the XVII-th century, are the main objects of the research. One of them was Anne Hutchinson, the pious woman, who pretended on the position of the spiritual leader in her society. The other was Anne Bradstreet, who realised her talents in poetry. The author solves the question: why the fates of two similar women were different? She supposes that one of them had found a more safe sphere of self realisation, than the other. However S. Korotkova remarks, that the way of the writer was also extremely hard for a woman, as well as any social activity in the epoch of the patriarchy.
D. Kittel
"A person of the great and modest soul": some aspects of one biography
The article written by Dina Kittel is dedicated to Ljubov' Yakovlevna Gurevic (1866 - 1940), who played an important role in Russian's feminist movement, theatre and literature in her time.
With numerous quotations from archival papers, the author illustrates Gurevic's contribution to women's suffrage, the publications of Stanislavski's main books and the foundation of Soviet drama. As an owner and editor of the progressive, left-wing magazine "Severny vestnik" and as a highly esteemed literary and theatre critic, Gurevic had a decisive influence on the intellectual climate in revolutionary and pre-Revolutionary times.
By pointing out her major role as a Russian suffragette, this article is to do justice to the growing tendency towards equal rights for women in the modern world.
O. V. Shnyrova
Jakov Prelooker - citizen of the world, radical and feminist
The article is devoted to the study of life and activity of Jakov Prelooker - Russian emigrant, who lived in England and was the ardent supporter of women's suffrage. Author analyses views of Prelooker on women's question and his activity as the editor of newspaper "Anglo-Russian" and the member of the Men's League for Women Suffrage, his contacts with different suffrage organisations. The main aim of the article is to explore causes which brought Prelooker to feminism and peculiarities of his attitude to women's suffrage in comparison with other male suffragists in Great Britain.
B. Polkinghorn
The division within the women's movement: can lessons be learned from the British experience?
The article is the paper of Dr. Bette Polkinghorn, professor of Economics (California State University, Sacramento), prepared for the conference "Historical Knowledge and Intellectual Culture" (Moscow, 2001). It focuses on the British experience of female workers and feminists who try to improve the circumstances of women's lives.
Dr. Bette Polkinghorn have used a "stepping stones" technique to compare issues and methods which divided the Feminist movement at various points in different periods. She traces a division of opinion existed throughout the period although both groups claimed to be seeking the emancipation of women. Author concludes, that in a larger sense both the "Rights" and the "Lefts" hoped to redefine the traditional relationship between men and women, although both groups found it safer to deny this. But as a consequence of the Division their accomplishments were fewer than they would have been if they had maintained their unity. The same could happen in Russia, if the lessons can not be learned.
L.A. Shkolnikov
British Labour Party and women's suffrage movement
In the given article the author considers the history of interaction between the British Labour Party and women's suffrage movement. The key problems of this analysis are the following: attitude of different Labour fractions towards women's enfranchisement, the evolution of the Labour policy on the issue of women's political equality and the transformation of the suffragists' tactics from the strong non-party policy to the suffrage-labour alliance. The author also tries to explain the nature of the given alliance and analyse its effectiveness and advantages for both Labour Party and women's suffrage movement.
T.V. Koroleva
The phenomenon of the "social feminism" in the French women's movement at the beginning of the XX century
The author centres her interest in the problems of the suffrage movement in France at the beginning of the XX-th century. She traces the development of the specific features of the French suffrage movement. This specificity is derived from the social, political and economical situations in the country and from the intellectual heritage as well. An important point was the religious atmosphere. The result of all this factors' influence was the specific character of the suffrage movement in France, which author determines as a "social feminism".
T. Koroleva also pays attention to the history of the main suffrage organisation's creation and to their leaders especially. Forms and methods of their activity were also extremely important to the author.
V.P. Frolov
First women - members of the Liberal Party in the British Parliament 1921-1951
The article is devoted to parliamentary and other social and political activity of the first women MPs represented the Liberal Party during 1921-1951. The entrance of the Liberal women into the House of Commons was the objective result of not only activity of British female suffrage movement, but also of women's activity inside the Liberal Party. In this connection the author mentions some basic organisational forms of the Liberal women's political activity during the previous period of the 1880s - the beginning of the XX century.
V. Frolov traces basic features of parliamentary activity of such Liberal women MPs as M. Wintringham, V. Terrington, H. Runciman and M. Lloyd George. He gives main attention to political fates of the first and the last ladies. Parliamentary standings of the Liberal women MPs - M. Wintringham and M. Lloyd George, in particular - deserved recognition and left appreciable trace in the history of the House of Commons. In Parliament the first Liberal women MPs paid special attention to social problems, including those which referred to women's position in the British society. They occupied the leftist positions in the Liberal Parliamentary Party and were a kind of safeguards of Liberal radical heritage.
The article's data also testify that the quantitative parameters of parliamentary representation of the women - members of the Liberal Party corresponded to its small representation and to appropriate relative parameters of the Conservatives and the Labours.
M.O. Dubovitskaja
The other side of the policy of the welfare in Sweden: the sterilization of the 1935 - 1975
The article throws light on the one of the most discussed problems of the modern Sweden society, the problem of the sterilization. The author depicts a brief history of the sterilization's policy. The main attention is paid to the history and to the conditions of the adoption of the sterilization bills. The other object of M.O. Dubovitskaja's interest is the discussion in the Sweden press, which have attracted attention of the Sweden society and the people throughout the world. The discussion and the increase of the interest to the problem as its result have forced the government to reconsider a legislation about the sterilization. Moreover the government was forced to compensate the damage to the victims.
A.A. Pavlov
Lucretius' physiology of love
This article is devoted to consideration of Lucretius love concept. Roman Epicurean philosopher of the first century ВС. His analysis of love takes place in the end of the 4th book De rerum natura, but concept of love is the constituent part of the whole poem. In the author's opinion, the poem, apart from apparent, has also symbolical structure. It can be divided into two cycles applicable to natural cycles of Love and Death. They are symbolical images of two love types: love-sex and love-passion. In the consent with Epicures, Lucretius esteems love as natural not indispensable pleasure. Philosopher esteems love-sex as true love, and love-passion, as false.This contrast is, on the one hand, the outcome of systematisation of Epicurean concept; on the other, it is connected with Lucretius' opposition between Roman social reality of the first century ВС as a kind of social chaos and natural order and harmony.
N.V. Diundic
Family and marriage in the life of the French aristocrats in the first half of the XVIII-th century
The court's culture of the eighteenth century is the field of the N.V. Diundic's research. The article bases on the wide spectrum of different sources. These are memoirs, letters, philosophical works and literature. The autor studies the specific features of domestic life of the French aristocracy in their correlation with public life. Marriage and love are central categories of the author's analysis. The role of women and treatment with children are the other points of the N.V. Diundic's interest.
I.Y. Nikolaeva
Historical and cultural approach to French gender identity: sources and peculiarities
I.Y. Nikolaeva constructs the wide generalisation of gender identity's development in France. She supposes that the gender asymmetry was overcome there earlier than in the other European countries. The saucers of the women's liberty were detected by I.Y. Nikolaeva at the Merovingian epoch. This conclusion was drawn from the analysis of the Frank elite's life.
The next period, attracting the author's interest, is the time of the fm'amour of the XII-XIII centuries. The author interprets the famous literary products of that time, such as novels of chivalry and poesy of troubadours. The other step of the development of the French gender specificity is connected with medieval urban culture.

публикации


вышедшие публикации


альманах
Адам и Ева


Выпуск № 1, 2001 г.

Выпуск № 2, 2001 г.

Выпуск № 3, 2002 г.

Выпуск № 4, 2002 г.


Ежегодник историко-антропологических исследований


2001/2002 гг.








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